A Fire Hydrant System in an effective and efficient means of extinguishing large fires, which can otherwise cause devastation. Hydrant System enables the fire fighter to attack the seat of the fire from a distance. Hydrant valves or outlets for delivering water, located at strategic points facilitate delivery of water with tremendous pressure so as to quench the fire with discreet use of a special branch pipe the water under pressure can also be used as a “Sheet” to push the smoke for entering a burning.
Depending on the type of the building i.e., residential, commercial or industrial, a particular type of the hydrant system i.e., Down comer System, Wet Riser System or the Wet Riser cum Down comer System is installed. These systems are designed as per Part IV of National Building code for high- rise buildings and / or the standards laid down by the Traffic Advisory Committee.
The pumping facility forms the heart of the Fire Hydrant System. Normally motor driven and a stand-by diesel engine driven pumps, are installed to ensure system functioning even during mains failure.
The pump is basically used to lift the water from the reservoir and deliver the same under pressure, to the hydrant points for fighting fires. A Jockey pup is also installed to make good minor pressure losses. This pump functions automatically and does not need monitoring. The main / stand-by pump starts automatically when a pressure loss is felt in the Hydrant line, but has to be switched off manually for obvious reasons.
Hydrant valves are located at strategic points and with the help of the hoses placed near these valves, water can directed to fight fires.
Hydrants must be simple and reliable to connect to and to operate. Operating nuts should be pentagonal or triangular in design to reduce tampering by unauthorized persons. Discharge valves should be specified to open by turning counter-clockwise and close clockwise. (Underground valves on water mains and on the hydrant branch line should operate according to local or regional standards.)
Plan the fire-fighting and fire-protection systems in accordance with AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction) standards, and/or international standards such as NFPA or FM.
As new properties are developed it usually means new fire hydrants are necessary to properly protect the structures being built on the property & that may exist on the property that you are developing or on property that is already developed.
Aside from the general purpose of delivering water for fire fighting, the hydrant design selected must be based on a number of operational elements. Some issues to consider include:
- How much water (GPM or L/min) is needed for firefighting?
- How many and what size hose connections are required.
- The established hose sizes and coupling threads in the region.
- Current (and future) configuration of fire apparatus.
- Issues of clearance and visibility.
- Operating characteristics of the hydrants.
- Amount of head (static pressure) that is present in the system.
- Climatic conditions in the area.
This is a semi-automatic system. A network of pipes is laid out depending upon the risk with hydrant valves placed at strategic places. Fire Hydrant System, the oldest and still one of the most effective ones, consists of the following components:
- Hydrant Valves
- Hydrant Accessories
- Hose pipe.
- Short Brach Pipe (Nozzles).
- Fittings & Adaptors.
- Foam Making Equipments.